*Years ago, it occurred to me that our view of the nature of mass may be incomplete. Initially, I strove to disprove this notion. Then I applied the idea to various systems to see if the calculated results conformed to reality. This website shows what I found. Its purpose is so people can apply the equations to other tests or situations, clarify or extend the concepts, or correct errors and even debunk misconceptions. If this proposal is valid, it would represent an advancement in the understanding of the dynamics of the universe.*

Acceleration is the result of a change in velocity. Gravitational acceleration is indistinguishable from other accelerations. So, mathematically a velocity can be assigned to gravity whether it has meaning or not. Force is involved in changing velocity by altering the speed of an object. Only a spinning object with a constant speed experiences acceleration not requiring force. Its speed changes direction but is constant because an object in motion tends to remain in motion in the absence of other forces. Therefore, a gravitational velocity would have to be some sort of spinning velocity. By equating the general spinning acceleration formula to the gravitational acceleration from Newton's equation for gravity, an equation for the velocity associated with gravity is obtained ( equation 1 ).

**( equation 1 ) vg2 = Gm / r**

This velocity has no use by itself as it cannot be measured.However, one can speculate on what it could be. A spinning object exerts an outward force while gravity is a downward force. In a car, you are pushed back in your seat as the car speeds up. If the car reduces its speed quickly you are thrown in the opposite direction, forward. This reaction suggests that gravitational acceleration is a deceleration due to a reduction in some sort of universal velocity. Mass' property of inertia would offer a retarding force to these velocities. We do not feel universal accelerations because they are tiny but we would feel a reduction of these as gravity.

The speeds we share as part of the universe are enormous but constant. We believe that an object's speed cannot exceed the speed of light, c. I am suggesting that the universe itself is moving at c and any object within it is also moving at c if the gravitational velocity of the object is included ( equation 2 ).

**( equation 2 ) c2 = vi2 + vg2 **

Here we share the earth's universal velocity and are part of its gravity. By acquiring the escape velocity, we would leave earth's gravitational well. That is, we would lose the velocity associated with earth's gravity but gain that amount of actual velocity. Similarly, we could leave the gravitational well of the Solar System, Milky Way, the "Great Attractor ", and other grander universal structures by increasing our velocity by the required amount. However, we cannot escape our own gravitational field, so cannot reach the speed of light. With equation 2, our absolute velocity can be calculated. Unfortunately, this is another quantity which cannot be measured. However, it is the basis for the calculation of the maximum energy value of cosmic radiation presented here.

As a body shrinks its inertia increases; hence, it loses some celestial rotation. Since we are an unaware part of this rotation, we perceive the deceleration of the body as an increase in its individual rotation. That increase should be equal to the increase in the gravitational velocity of the body. It is upon this basis that the spinning rates of condensing stars is calculated here.

Similar reasoning is applied to the Solar System. Here there are two considerations: a planet's spin velocity and its velocity revolving around the sun. It is somewhat analogous to describing the velocity of a thrown hula hoop. It could be moving horizontally while spinning at the same time. Upon touching the ground, if the spin is in the proper direction, that velocity would be added to the horizontal velocity. Similarly, it is the combined spin and revolving velocities of a planet which must be considered. Revolution of a planet around the sun is equivalent to spin when the distance between the two is zero.

The same equations are applied to other areas in the remainder of the paper.